THE PATH TO COORDINATED COOPERATION:
Resolving the Exploitation of Women

by Ananda Gaorii Avadhutika


"The auspicious signs of the awakening of women are clearly visible in every sphere of social life."(1) - Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar

Difference between males and females
Historical Analysis
Women's Rights
Social Transformation


The unique aspects of Sarkar's views on women's nature and her position in past, present and future societies are based on two main premises. The first is the spiritual premise: the fundamental spiritual equality of all humans. All living beings have a trifarious nature: they function concurrently in the physical, mental and spiritual spheres. In the spiritual domain, the ultimate joyful goal and perfection of human existence may be attained. In this domain there is no question of differences between humans - male or female, black or white, rich or poor - all are equally capable of spiritual realization. The second is the concept of a collective psychology of society. Sarkar's historical analysis shows how the dialectical evolution of society is based principally upon the progressive alternation of dominant collective psychologies. This analysis sheds new light on our understanding of social dynamics and its effect on the gender dialectic and on the historical reasons for the exploitation of women.

 

Difference between Males and Females

BIO-PSYCHOLOGY - NATURE OR NURTURE?

In recent times, detailed studies regarding the effect of the male and female hormones on the physiological and psychological structures, show that biological sex may not necessarily be the determining factor of psychological and emotional gender patterns, nor of physical strength and stamina.(2) In other words, although gender is biologically determined, the way in which gender is expressed is modified by variations in degree of hormonal combinations, and by environmental conditioning.

Although these studies touch on the physical and psychic aspects of human behaviour, none have entered into a discussion of the psycho-spiritual reasons behind human hormonal patterns. Today physical sexual traits can be transformed by surgical and medicinal manipulation and psychologists have demonstrated how environment influences the psychology of gender. No one, however, has ventured to explain, how, in order to go beyond the limits of inborn or imposed gender, hormonal activity can be directed by an individual's own psyche towards the development of one's spiritual nature. Sarkar does just this, and, in elevating the gender debate to the psycho-spiritual realm, offers a route by which both females and males can liberate themselves from the limitations of biological determinism.

 

TANTRA

Sarkar has introduced new concepts of bio-psychology - ie the relationship of the glands and hormonal secretions to human physical and psychic states - to explain various physical, mental and spiritual phenomena which make up the human life experience. Sarkar's concepts are based on the ancient science of Tantra Yoga. Tantra has been accepted for thousands of years, predominantly in the East, as a practical system for physical and mental harmony, and spiritual realization. Tantric paradigms for various life phenomena, however, have often been couched in esoteric and mystical terms. Sarkar elucidates these subtle concepts in practical and scientific language.

According to Tantra, the ultimate aim of human life is the attainment of spiritual self-realization, to know the inner meaning of one's own existence and relationship with the cosmos and the Supreme. Such realization in an individual depends on a healthy physical and psychic base, and compassionate involvement with the world. Human psychic, nervous and glandular structures are designed to be able to achieve this goal.

Sarkar has given detailed descriptions of how each propensity of mind, or vrtti, has a glandular nucleus and corresponding hormonal stimulus. These glandular nuclei correspond to the seven cakras (physico-psycho-spiritual energy centres) and their sub-centres. Cakras are traditionally used in Tantric meditation as centres of concentration in order to direct the expressions of the mind towards the spiritual realm.

Sarkar also offers intricate descriptions of the difference between the sexes in terms of differences in the glandular and attendant nervous systems. These descriptions give useful insights into the differences in the male and female ways of dealing with the world. He explains, however, that these differences only pertain to functions which relate to the physical body, and psychic responses relating to the physical world. In the higher spiritual, supra-mental and psycho-spiritual spheres, however, there are no differences between men and women.

Every spiritual realization - from the higher spiritual realm to the comparatively low psycho-spiritual realm - comes about through the medium of hormones secreted by the a'jina' cakra and the sahasra'ra cakra. According to some people, women are not entitled to this sort of higher spiritual realization because of certain physical short-comings . . . It is true that as there are some differences in the expression of certain vrttis [mental propensities], there will also be differences in the lower glands and sub-glands between men and women . . . but we should remember that these differences pertain to only a few crude propensities . . . But in the spiritual, supra-mental and psycho-spiritual spheres, there are no differences between men and women.(3)

In Tantric practice, both women and men can consciously work on changing tendencies of mind that obstruct their self-realization. Meditation, auto-suggestion, yoga exercises and spiritual life-style affect glandular and hormonal activity. Through these practices, one can direct emotional expressions away from a narrow self-centred focus towards a universal spiritual goal. This ultimately leads to self-realization, the goal of human existence.

 

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES

In explaining the difference between, and qualities of, male and female psychologies, Sarkar states that, at the general level, the fundamental evolutionary difference between men and women is that men move towards the object of enjoyment in order to enjoy it, whereas women attract the object of enjoyment towards themselves.(4) He says that the biological 'expression' of this occurs during the process of fertilization in which the mobile sperm swims towards the egg drawn by its chemical attractions. These two forces, where an entity attracts towards it the object of enjoyment, and where the entity moves towards its object of enjoyment, exist in all bodies. In undeveloped minds, such as amoebas and snails, these forces are in balance so these entities are asexual. In higher developed minds, due to the complexity of glandular and nervous structures which are necessary to express complex emotions such as love, hope and pride, one of these two forces predominates and this determines the sex of the body. A human entity where neither force predominates is a hermaphrodite. Due to the predominance of either of these two forces, male and female psychologies deal differently with the world.

For example, in one essay, Sarkar describes these differences in terms of the predominance of 'sentimentality', or kaeshik in Sanskrit, in women.(5) On the other hand, he states that men progress more rapidly in the areas requiring 'rationality'.(6) He does not, however, as we have been conditioned to believe in patriarchal society, consider these latter qualities to be superior. He goes on to say that in society each of these traits is important and that they balance each other out.(7)

The number of cells in a female body is a little smaller than the number in a male body. Again, from the viewpoint of sentimentality, the number of nerve cells in a woman's body is a little greater than that in a man's. That is why in areas needing intelligence, knowledge and rationality men progress rapidly, and in area's where success depends on sentimentality, women progress very swiftly. Through the dispensation of God, men's deficiency is balanced by women's sentimentality, and women's deficiency is balanced by men's resoluteness and subtle propensive propulsion.(8)

Both the male and female ways of dealing with the world have their own importance and validity. One is not superior to the other. Nor is rationality the sole domain of males and sentimentality the sole domain of females. Both males and females function in both these realms; in males, however, one way of dealing with the world tends to predominate, and in females the other. Through a balanced educational system, both males and females can learn to develop both these qualities for the greater welfare of the world. For example, men could learn to take a greater share of the responsibilities of child-rearing; they could appreciate more the 'work' that women do in terms of emotional support of their children, partners and communities. Today's concern for global ecology, trends towards co-operative ways of working and emphasis upon the human factor, are expressions of changes in the social psychology towards more 'feminine' values - values of a partnership social mode, a linking (focused on relationship with the other, particular the most vulnerable) psychology, an affiliation motivation, as opposed to a dominator social mode, a ranking psychology and power motivation.(9)

 


Historical Analysis

DEVALUATION OF WOMEN'S WORLDVIEW IN PATRIARCHAL SOCIETIES

In relationship to gender differences, Sarkar acknowledges that women exist as a biological category and that this inborn glandular make-up affects the ways the physically-oriented aspect of the vrttis are expressed. This in turn influences a woman's worldview and ways of expression. He also recognizes that environmental conditioning has profound effects on a human's behavioural patterns, and has given numerous examples of how the values and modes of patriarchal societies distort women's efforts at self-actualization.

Positive psychic and positive physical environments are positive catalytic agents, and negative psychic and negative physical environments are negative catalytic agents . . . The creation of hormones in the . . . glands depends upon these positive and negative catalytic agents.(10)

Due to negative influences - historically the devaluation of female ways of thinking and acting by patriarchal societies, women's enforced dependence due to their child-bearing and rearing functions, and the imposition of limiting social and religious roles - inferiority complexes have been infused into the minds of women.

With the establishment of male dominance in the society, all power was concentrated in the hands of men. Women were gradually deprived of all their rights - social, cultural, religious, political and economic . . . As a result of all this, on the one hand male lawmakers formulated many social regulations, penal codes and so on against women, and on the other hand women began to curb their own rights by thinking and saying, "We women are weak, we cannot undertake such huge tasks as men; how can we women solve such big and complex problems?" "My God! This is work for men, how can we women accomplish this?" As a result of harbouring such weak thoughts, women lost their self-confidence.(11)

Sarkar strongly denounces the insidious ways in which inferiority complexes are imposed upon certain sections of society when their ways of thinking, culture and modus operandi are repressed. He sees that the cumulative effect of such repression cripples the minds of the victims.

Repression directly affects the sub-conscious mind. Gradually the psychic structure is severely damaged and finally the mind is totally changed. The result is that people are inflicted with a defeatist psychology and an inferiority complex.(12)

In regards to women's position in society, he unequivocally states that certain men consciously used psychological abuse backed up by man-made social and religious codes to relegate women to a status lower than chattel. Sarkar supports the view that patriarchal society, to its own detriment, has failed to give due value to women's qualities, ideas and talents.

There is a greater degree of sentimentality in women. Consequently, women can perform extraordinary feats that men cannot. Had these potentialities been harnessed for constructive activities, there would have been many benefits for the world, but as this aspect of women's psychology is not known, society could not utilize their potential fully.(13)

On this point Sarkar shares the views of feminist historians and writers that in a patriarchal society only male social paradigms are recognized as the dominant value system, and that the values associated with the female paradigm are, at the most, subordinate or ancillary values. Dale Spender in her monumental work, Women of Ideas And What Men Have Done To Them, gives a succinct description of this exploitative dynamic.

Patriarchal society depends . . . on the experience and values of males being perceived as the only valid frame of reference for society, and that it is therefore in patriarchal interest to prevent women from sharing, establishing and asserting their equally real, valid and different frame of reference, which is the outcome of different experience.(14)

Sarkar states that without a harmonious balance between the male worldview and female worldview, "society will become crippled, and its all-round well-being cannot be achieved."(15)
Male social roles are also the result of biological make-up and social conditioning. Both females and males need to be liberated from the limiting gender conditioning in order for there to be true equality between the sexes in society in terms of mutual respect of gender differences, and egalitarian outlook in terms of social roles. This process of liberation, according to Sarkar, is firstly a process of the internal individual psyche, which in turn will have its effect on the collective psyche.

History is the expression of collective human psychology. Men today are beginning to realize that women can no longer be treated as commodities. Those days are gone. Women, too, are thinking, 'We will no longer remain weak, feeble or inactive. We will no longer passively tolerate injustice, torture, exploitation, insults and hatred at the hands of male exploiters.' The women's liberation movements in the East and West have originated out of this changed collective psychology.(16)

For Sarkar, human beings are subtle entities, capable of subtle expressions on the spiritual and psycho-spiritual or intuitional planes, for which the physical body and the physically-oriented psychic body with their attendant glandular and nervous systems, are the base. It is the subtler levels of human mind, goaded by spiritual and universalistic ideals, which should ideally guide the lower, more physically oriented levels. It is only in the physical and lower psychic levels that there is a difference between males and females. In the subtler, and ultimately more powerful and altruistic levels, there is no difference. Therefore, while the differences between males and females on the physical and on certain psychic levels need to be recognized and appreciated, these same differences should not be used as a grounds for the exploitation of one sex over the other.

 

COLLECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND THE GENDER DIALECTIC

One of the main questions in the feminist debate is how and why did women come to be subordinated. The socialist feminists' analysis of women's exploitation falls into the materialist dialectic. They consider that women's inferior status is due to the institution of private property and class-divided society and to their corollary, the patriarchal family. Sarkar introduces a dialectic that is based on psychology. The dominance of human psyche is actually the exploiting factor and not the economic dynamic of society. Radical feminists also analyse the psychological factor. They say that women are categorized as an inferior class based upon their sex, and that the purpose of male chauvinism is primarily to obtain psychological ego satisfaction. In this regard, radical feminists and Sarkar share a similar platform, but this is short lived as the radicals' social solution of 'separateness' is shown to be a temporary reaction to abuse and exploitation. Sarkar's dialectic traces the phases of exploitation and suppression and takes society onto the next step of evolutionary development.

 

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF EXPLOITATION

The most important innovation that Sarkar has given to the understanding of social dynamics is his concept of a collective psychology of society. His analysis of history is not based on economic factors, but on psychological ones. He traces main trends of social evolution as a cyclical rotation of thesis, antithesis and synthesis of psychological classes.

Social dynamism is commonly explained by Sarkar as the result of a dialectical interaction between four psychological classes: the working class, the martial class, the intellectual class and the business or trading class. Sarkar defines the working class as that collection of people whose psychology is dominated by the material world and who demonstrate no attempt to transcend it. The class psychologies interact in such a way as to produce a cyclical succession of class dominance - the working class, followed by the martial class, followed by the intellectual class, followed by the business class - with the sequence repeating itself indefinitely.

Just as there has been an alternation of class dominance due to the class dialectic, so too there has been an alternation of gender dominance due to the gender dialectic. In his essay, "Human History and Collective Psychology,"(17) Sarkar argues that so far in human history there have been three eras in the gender dialectic. In primitive, that is, earliest human tribes, males and females had equal importance in tribal structure; then followed a period of matriarchy; and, subsequently, a period of patriarchy, which still persists today.

During the shift from the first age of subsistence-oriented societies, to the second age of tribal and feudal settlements, society moved from a predominantly matriarchal make-up to a patriarchal one. This occurred due to the increasing predominance of the martial psychology which lead to physical prowess, as opposed to a respect and awe of women's reproductive and nurturing capacity, being recognized as the criteria for social leadership. In the initial stages of societies dominated by martial psychologies, the status of motherhood and womanhood continued to be respected and women were not exploited. But as the natural vitality of this social thesis waned, and the exploitative tendencies of the martial leaders began to lead to social decadence, women were increasingly viewed as spoils of war and the property of conquerors. During the martial era, women's biological function as child-bearers and carers, served to her disadvantage for, due to her good faith in the benevolent martial qualities of the men in society, she surrendered her independence to become a home-maker and background supporter. This eventually put her in a position of material and psychological dependence. This psychology of dependence was further exploited in the succeeding eras of the predominance of the intellectual class and the business-oriented class.
In his writing, Sarkar has traced in vivid language the details of women's oppression in the later phases of this patriarchal period. He states that when the martial psychology dominated society, women enjoyed a relatively privileged position in society.(18) During the era dominated by a decadent intellectual psychology, however, women's position was relegated to that of slaves and objects of enjoyment.(19) It was the exploitative tendencies in the intellectual psychology which concocted religious and, later on, scientific dogmas which instilled in women a collective inferiority complex - that they were spiritually inferior, the embodiment of evil; that they were intellectually inferior, incapable of governing their own property or lives, and incapable of serious learning; that therefore they should use their cursed female body and feeble womanly qualities to serve men and bear his children, be dependent on his grace, or submit to his rage, for all else through the inviolable institution of marriage.

The vipra(20) intellect reduced them to the position of wageless slaves. Conspiring to cripple women in every way the vipras fabricated "divine" commandments together with numerous kinds of scriptural injunctions, paralogical tenets and imaginary yarns of sin and virtue. Listening to these it would seem that man alone, particularly the vipra man alone, was the chosen person of God for whom the rest of humanity had taken birth only to provide enjoyment.(21)

This exploitation was, and is, being further exacerbated during this age of a predominant capitalist psychology, where women are seen and used as consumers, producers and objects of commerce. Despite advances in parts of the world by women in certain areas, women's sexuality, her physical and psychological vulnerability, are still being grossly exploited by male narrow-mindedness, by capitalist leeches, religious opportunists and military brutes.

 

Women's Rights

WOMEN'S RIGHTS

In Sarkar's analysis, it is in times of extreme degeneration of society and extreme exploitation by a decadent class, that the natural reaction of the exploited masses is to create a popular movement of anti-thesis. The present women's movement is such a movement against the exploitative institution of patriarchy as perpetrated by a globally dominant business (capitalist) class. Sarkar argues that historically women regained certain social rights due to their persistent struggle against exploitative patriarchal forces and social institutions.

One or two women who appeared to have been given these spiritual rights had actually usurped them virtually by force on the strength of their personalities. The society of the pundits at that time did not oppose this attempt to establish such rights in black and white, but all the same it certainly did not view it favourably or patronizingly. However, those women subsequently commanded great respect and still do today. Of course it has always been a fact that nobody gives anybody rights on a platter. One has to establish one's rights by dint of one's own force and power.(22)

Sarkar sees that greater recognition of women's rights and potentialities is inevitable as society depends more and more on intellectual prowess and less on human physical strength. In the intellectual sphere, women have as much capacity as men for excellence and initiative. The main drawbacks to women taking their due place in today's society are lack of education and lack of economic self-sufficiency. Therefore Sarkar specifies free and equal educational opportunities, provision of economic and social security, and no discrimination in the social, educational and religious realms as the main factors which will empower women. He also describes how changes in reproductive technology will bring about inevitable changes in social structure, family structure and the expression of an individual's creative potential. In all these respects, he incorporates many of the views of major womanist and feminist groups regarding greater self-determination in reproductive rights, more collective responsibility of child-rearing, equality in educational and vocational opportunities, and economic self-sufficiency.

 

SPIRITUAL VALUES

Sarkar does not believe, however, that a real paradigm shift in social consciousness can occur only through the anti-thesis of the women's movement and social equality for women. Not only will both men and women have to acknowledge the limitations of their past conditioning but, in order that society might free itself from all kinds of exploitative tendencies, they will also have to transcend their individual physical and psychic limitations and nurture the spiritual. Here again Sarkar elevates the discussion of social transformation to embrace the spiritual aspect of human life.

In an essay entitled, "The Neo-Ethics of Multilateral Salvation,"(23) Sarkar gives two points which he considers essential for a progressive and universalistic transformation of the collective psychology: firstly, that the Supreme Entity be accepted as the goal of life, and secondly, that there be a balance between material, or carbonic, and spiritual, or non-carbonic, pabula in individual and social life.(24)

 

Social Transformation

IMPERIALISM AND MALE-CHAUVINISM

Sarkar sees the phenomena of war, imperialism and destructive male chauvinism as part of an aberrant collective psyche.(25) He sees that it is the psychological nature of those who dominate others' psychic pabula not to be satisfied with a little power. The mental need and greed for power feeds itself and takes over the mental motivation of those in dominant roles until the desire to consume the pabula of others becomes pathologically obsessive. Imperialism has its origin in the psychic and functions in the psychic arena. . . Goaded by this psychic ailment . . . a superpower forces its own selfish national interests on other weaker states to establish its suzerainty politically, militarily, etc. A powerful linguistic group suppresses other minority linguistic groups; the so-called upper castes subjugate the so-called lower castes in society and suck their vital juice under so many pleas and disguises; and opportunistic males curtail the rights of women in various ways. In all cases, the same inherent psychological malady of imperialism prevails.(26) In explaining this, he adds weight to the historical analysis of the radical feminists who say that the suppression of women over the centuries has been an often violent and totally irrational wielding of male power just for the sake of power. "Man establishes his 'manhood' in direct proportion to this ability to have his ego override woman's, and derives his strength and self-esteem through this process."(27)

We see historical examples of this destructive pathological misogyny in the witch hunts, which spanned several centuries of European history, and in the Church's moral condemnation of women as the 'carnal source of all evil'. Throughout the world today, manifestations of this kind of collective mental sickness continue to shock us - the indiscriminate rape and abuse of women and children during war, the insatiable appetite of men for violent pornographic stimulation, and the escalation of sex-tourism and sexual exploitation of children.

 

SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION

According to Sarkar, progressive changes in the society and a sharp decrease in all forms of exploitation, will come about through a change in the collective psychology.(28) In the first phase, this change may manifest as the anti-thesis to the present capitalist domination of the global society and patriarchal exploitation. This change is presently taking place.

In his book, The Eternal Dance of Macrocosm, Michael Towsey identifies several factors which indicate the decline of the patriarchal society.(29) Firstly, the expansionist drive of patriarchy, which has taken its toll on the finite resources of planet earth, is being challenged by the emergence of ecology and other caring philosophies. These are the expressions of a new kind of social psychology in which the principle of harmony, not expansion or gain, is all important. This resonates more easily with female collective psychology. Secondly, "due to the neglect of its internal harmony, patriarchal society is beset by anti-social and destructive forces."(30) Thirdly, "the exploitation of women is becoming more blatant, as in the spread of pornography. The inability or lack of desire on the part of politicians, police and the media to take a sympathetic and effective stand is obvious. These factors heighten the determination of women to fight back. More women are joining the burgeoning protest movements that challenge the status quo. From these movements come future leaders."(31) Fourthly, there is a revival of women's culture, literature etc. Finally, "strength differences no longer have the same social, political and economic significance as they previously did. . . . The future belongs to those with intellect rather than physical strength, and intellect is not the preserve of one sex or the other."(32)

Towsey also mentions another factor which will bring about changes in the collective psychology and affect the gender dialectic.

The gender dialectic has an internal tendency to arrive at an equilibrium . . . the polarization of the dialectic will gradually become less and the male and female collective psychologies will gradually converge. This in turn implies that the differences between individual male and female psychologies will diminish. There is some hint of this in [one of Sarkar's essays(33) ] where Sarkar implies that advances in reproductive technology will make sexual reproduction obsolete, and the reproductive capacity of the human body will become extinct. Such changes in physical structure would certainly have their psychological parallel. In this situation both social consciousness and social structures (family, education, welfare structures) will be quite different from anything we understand today.(34)

For Sarkar, this social transformation must take place through the development of 'coordinated cooperation' between men and women.

Women must not be suppressed, and there should not be domination of males in the society. Society should have a cooperative leadership, not a subordinated leadership; there should be a coordinated, cooperative leadership, leadership between males and females.(35)

Towsey sees that coordinated cooperation comes about through the development of three kinds of 'spaces' in society:

In terms of social structures and institutions, coordinated cooperation between the sexes means that there must be three kinds of 'spaces' in society. For the proper expression of both gender psychologies a future healthy society will require both 'women only space' and 'men only space'. These will be necessary so that both poles of the dialectic can develop their respective visions for society with clarity and self-confidence. However, the highest flowering of human potential will be achieved in the third 'space' where the female and male visions meet. This third space is that of coordinated cooperation. It is in this space that the differences between the sexes acquire a meaning and purpose beyond the merely biological. It is in this space that all the human virtues clash and cohere to produce a universal human society. It is in this space that society advances with greatest speed towards its ideal of social equality and collective welfare.(36)

In Sarkar's eyes, social transformation, however, will not be complete without the universal spiritual element being accepted by human beings as the basis of all life.



CONCLUSION

Sarkar has defined the Sanskrit term for 'society', samaj, as a group of people moving together towards a progressive universal goal. The root of the word 'samaj' is 'sam' which means 'together' or 'in unison'. He has also stated that human beings on this planet have not yet come together as a true samaj. That is the task of human beings today.

To accomplish this task, a change will have to come about in the collective psyche of human beings - a change away from competitive, divisive, destructive paradigms of human and global relationships towards a co-operative, synthetic and compassionate paradigm.

Human beings are struggling to make this evolutionary step of a change in the collective psyche. This change will not be merely on the theoretical level, but will be an actual transformation of human glandular, hormonal and nervous systems to enable us to understand and express subtle universalistic sentiments in our individual and collective psyche. This change will come about through struggle with the status quo of out-moded and limiting sentiments and social mores. The present struggle for greater recognition of women's qualities and dignity is a part of this total struggle against all narrow and divisive sentiments of human mind.

Sarkar has suggested 'coordinated cooperation' as the mutually respectful and constructive form of social relationships befitting a samaj, a true human society. Such a stance honours the diversity of different human beings and other animate and inanimate parts of our society. In such a society, the different genders will be able to contribute in their own distinct and equally beneficial way towards the collective good of society.

Sarkar says that when an operation is done with collective effort, then it is called cooperation.(37)

In every field of collective life there should be cooperation amongst the members of society. Where this cooperation is between free human beings, each with equal rights and mutual respect for each other, and each working for the welfare of the other, it is called `coordinated cooperation' . . . in (existing social) systems social relationships are mainly based on subordinated cooperation, resulting in the degeneration of society's moral fabric . . . This lack of proper equilibrium and equipoise in social life is causing the whole structure of society to crumble down.(38)

Our planet is degenerating due to a lack of proper understanding amongst human beings. Sarkar, as a Tantric master and visionary and also as a social philosopher, has offered deep insights into the psychological reasons for, and the negative results of, divisive and destructive social malaises such as discrimination of one sex against another. He places the onus on us, men and women of today, to learn from our collective mistakes, and make individual and collective efforts to throw off the out-moded dogmas of the past, and based on a rational and intuitional understanding of the interrelatedness of all the diverse aspects of the universe, to learn how to think and live in a cooperative way.

 

NOTES

  1. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Equal Rights for Men and Women", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women. Calcutta, Ananda Marga Publications, 1995, 120.
  2. Margaret Andersen, Thinking About Women: Sociological and Feminist Perspectives. New York, Macmillan, 1983, 23-26.
  3. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Equality in the Psycho-Spiritual Sphere", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 237.
  4. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Samskara and Gender Differences", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 207.
  5. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Sentimentality: A Special Quality in Women", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 228.
  6. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Sentimentality and the Psycho-Spiritual Realm", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 242-243.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Riane Eisler, Sacred Pleasure. San Francisco, Harper Collins, 1996.
  10. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Aspects of Bio-Psychology", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 224-225.
  11. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Equal Rights for Men and Women", 119-120.
  12. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Two Wings", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 138.
  13. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Sentimentality: A Special Quality in Women", 228.
  14. Dale Spender, Women Of Ideas And What Men Have Done To Them. London, Pandora Press, 1982, 5.
  15. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Sentimentality and the Psycho-Spiritual Realm", 243.
  16. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Equal Rights for Men and Women", 120.
  17. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Human History and Collective Psychology", in The Awakening of Women, 122.
  18. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Matriarchy in the Ksattriya Age", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 3-6.
  19. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Women: The Wageless Slaves of the Vipras", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 7-12.
  20. In analyzing society on the basis of class, Sarkar defined class in terms of psycho-social characteristic. The Vipran class was the class of intellectuals.
  21. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Women: The Wageless Slaves of the Vipras", 8.
  22. Ibid, 9.
  23. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Neo-Ethics of Multi-Lateral Salvation", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, Prout in a Nutshell: Part 9. Calcutta, Ananda Marga Publications, 1987, 67-68.
  24. Ibid.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Ibid.
  27. Anne Koedt, Ellen Levine and Anita Rapone, eds., Radical Feminism. New York, Quadrangle, 1973, 379-80.
  28. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Human History and Collective Psychology", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 123.
  29. Michael Towsey, The Eternal Dance of Macrocosm. Copenhagen, Proutist Publications, 1986, 171-172.
  30. Ibid.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Ibid.
  33. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Science and Population Control", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 267.
  34. Michael Towsey, 173.
  35. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Two Wings", 139.
  36. Michael Towsey, 175-176.
  37. Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, Proutist Economics: Discourses on Economic Liberation. Calcutta, Ananda Marga Publications, 1992, 128-129.
  38. Ibid.

 

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