THE PATH TO COORDINATED COOPERATION:
Resolving the Exploitation of Women
by Ananda Gaorii Avadhutika
"The auspicious signs of the awakening of
women are clearly visible in every sphere of social
life."(1) - Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar
Difference between males and
The unique aspects of Sarkar's views on women's nature
and her position in past, present and future societies
are based on two main premises. The first is the spiritual
premise: the fundamental spiritual equality of all humans.
All living beings have a trifarious nature: they function
concurrently in the physical, mental and spiritual spheres.
In the spiritual domain, the ultimate joyful goal and
perfection of human existence may be attained. In this
domain there is no question of differences between humans
- male or female, black or white, rich or poor - all
are equally capable of spiritual realization. The second
is the concept of a collective psychology of society.
Sarkar's historical analysis shows how the dialectical
evolution of society is based principally upon the progressive
alternation of dominant collective psychologies. This
analysis sheds new light on our understanding of social
dynamics and its effect on the gender dialectic and
on the historical reasons for the exploitation of women.
Difference between Males and
BIO-PSYCHOLOGY - NATURE OR NURTURE?
In recent times, detailed studies regarding the effect
of the male and female hormones on the physiological
and psychological structures, show that biological sex
may not necessarily be the determining factor of psychological
and emotional gender patterns, nor of physical strength
and stamina.(2) In other words, although gender is biologically
determined, the way in which gender is expressed is
modified by variations in degree of hormonal combinations,
and by environmental conditioning.
Although these studies touch on the physical and psychic
aspects of human behaviour, none have entered into a
discussion of the psycho-spiritual reasons behind human
hormonal patterns. Today physical sexual traits can
be transformed by surgical and medicinal manipulation
and psychologists have demonstrated how environment
influences the psychology of gender. No one, however,
has ventured to explain, how, in order to go beyond
the limits of inborn or imposed gender, hormonal activity
can be directed by an individual's own psyche towards
the development of one's spiritual nature. Sarkar does
just this, and, in elevating the gender debate to the
psycho-spiritual realm, offers a route by which both
females and males can liberate themselves from the limitations
of biological determinism.
Sarkar has introduced new concepts of bio-psychology
- ie the relationship of the glands and hormonal secretions
to human physical and psychic states - to explain various
physical, mental and spiritual phenomena which make
up the human life experience. Sarkar's concepts are
based on the ancient science of Tantra Yoga.
Tantra has been accepted for thousands of years, predominantly
in the East, as a practical system for physical and
mental harmony, and spiritual realization. Tantric paradigms
for various life phenomena, however, have often been
couched in esoteric and mystical terms. Sarkar elucidates
these subtle concepts in practical and scientific language.
According to Tantra, the ultimate aim of human life
is the attainment of spiritual self-realization, to
know the inner meaning of one's own existence and relationship
with the cosmos and the Supreme. Such realization in
an individual depends on a healthy physical and psychic
base, and compassionate involvement with the world.
Human psychic, nervous and glandular structures are
designed to be able to achieve this goal.
Sarkar has given detailed descriptions of how each
propensity of mind, or vrtti, has a glandular
nucleus and corresponding hormonal stimulus. These glandular
nuclei correspond to the seven cakras (physico-psycho-spiritual
energy centres) and their sub-centres. Cakras are traditionally
used in Tantric meditation as centres of concentration
in order to direct the expressions of the mind towards
the spiritual realm.
Sarkar also offers intricate descriptions of the difference
between the sexes in terms of differences in the glandular
and attendant nervous systems. These descriptions give
useful insights into the differences in the male and
female ways of dealing with the world. He explains,
however, that these differences only pertain to functions
which relate to the physical body, and psychic responses
relating to the physical world. In the higher spiritual,
supra-mental and psycho-spiritual spheres, however,
there are no differences between men and women.
Every spiritual realization - from the higher spiritual
realm to the comparatively low psycho-spiritual realm
- comes about through the medium of hormones secreted
by the a'jina' cakra and the sahasra'ra
cakra. According to some people, women are not
entitled to this sort of higher spiritual realization
because of certain physical short-comings . . . It
is true that as there are some differences in the
expression of certain vrttis [mental propensities],
there will also be differences in the lower glands
and sub-glands between men and women . . . but we
should remember that these differences pertain to
only a few crude propensities . . . But in the spiritual,
supra-mental and psycho-spiritual spheres, there are
no differences between men and women.(3)
In Tantric practice, both women and men can consciously
work on changing tendencies of mind that obstruct their
self-realization. Meditation, auto-suggestion, yoga
exercises and spiritual life-style affect glandular
and hormonal activity. Through these practices, one
can direct emotional expressions away from a narrow
self-centred focus towards a universal spiritual goal.
This ultimately leads to self-realization, the goal
of human existence.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES
In explaining the difference between, and qualities
of, male and female psychologies, Sarkar states that,
at the general level, the fundamental evolutionary difference
between men and women is that men move towards the object
of enjoyment in order to enjoy it, whereas women attract
the object of enjoyment towards themselves.(4) He says
that the biological 'expression' of this occurs during
the process of fertilization in which the mobile sperm
swims towards the egg drawn by its chemical attractions.
These two forces, where an entity attracts towards it
the object of enjoyment, and where the entity moves
towards its object of enjoyment, exist in all bodies.
In undeveloped minds, such as amoebas and snails, these
forces are in balance so these entities are asexual.
In higher developed minds, due to the complexity of
glandular and nervous structures which are necessary
to express complex emotions such as love, hope and pride,
one of these two forces predominates and this determines
the sex of the body. A human entity where neither force
predominates is a hermaphrodite. Due to the predominance
of either of these two forces, male and female psychologies
deal differently with the world.
For example, in one essay, Sarkar describes these differences
in terms of the predominance of 'sentimentality', or
kaeshik in Sanskrit, in women.(5) On the other
hand, he states that men progress more rapidly in the
areas requiring 'rationality'.(6) He does not, however,
as we have been conditioned to believe in patriarchal
society, consider these latter qualities to be superior.
He goes on to say that in society each of these traits
is important and that they balance each other out.(7)
The number of cells in a female body is a little
smaller than the number in a male body. Again, from
the viewpoint of sentimentality, the number of nerve
cells in a woman's body is a little greater than that
in a man's. That is why in areas needing intelligence,
knowledge and rationality men progress rapidly, and
in area's where success depends on sentimentality,
women progress very swiftly. Through the dispensation
of God, men's deficiency is balanced by women's sentimentality,
and women's deficiency is balanced by men's resoluteness
and subtle propensive propulsion.(8)
Both the male and female ways of dealing with the
world have their own importance and validity. One is
not superior to the other. Nor is rationality the sole
domain of males and sentimentality the sole domain of
females. Both males and females function in both these
realms; in males, however, one way of dealing with the
world tends to predominate, and in females the other.
Through a balanced educational system, both males and
females can learn to develop both these qualities for
the greater welfare of the world. For example, men could
learn to take a greater share of the responsibilities
of child-rearing; they could appreciate more the 'work'
that women do in terms of emotional support of their
children, partners and communities. Today's concern
for global ecology, trends towards co-operative ways
of working and emphasis upon the human factor, are expressions
of changes in the social psychology towards more 'feminine'
values - values of a partnership social mode, a linking
(focused on relationship with the other, particular
the most vulnerable) psychology, an affiliation motivation,
as opposed to a dominator social mode, a ranking psychology
and power motivation.(9)
DEVALUATION OF WOMEN'S WORLDVIEW IN PATRIARCHAL
In relationship to gender differences, Sarkar acknowledges
that women exist as a biological category and that this
inborn glandular make-up affects the ways the physically-oriented
aspect of the vrttis are expressed. This in turn influences
a woman's worldview and ways of expression. He also
recognizes that environmental conditioning has profound
effects on a human's behavioural patterns, and has given
numerous examples of how the values and modes of patriarchal
societies distort women's efforts at self-actualization.
Positive psychic and positive physical environments
are positive catalytic agents, and negative psychic
and negative physical environments are negative catalytic
agents . . . The creation of hormones in the . . .
glands depends upon these positive and negative catalytic
Due to negative influences - historically the devaluation
of female ways of thinking and acting by patriarchal
societies, women's enforced dependence due to their
child-bearing and rearing functions, and the imposition
of limiting social and religious roles - inferiority
complexes have been infused into the minds of women.
With the establishment of male dominance in the society,
all power was concentrated in the hands of men. Women
were gradually deprived of all their rights - social,
cultural, religious, political and economic . . .
As a result of all this, on the one hand male lawmakers
formulated many social regulations, penal codes and
so on against women, and on the other hand women began
to curb their own rights by thinking and saying, "We
women are weak, we cannot undertake such huge tasks
as men; how can we women solve such big and complex
problems?" "My God! This is work for men,
how can we women accomplish this?" As a result
of harbouring such weak thoughts, women lost their
Sarkar strongly denounces the insidious ways in which
inferiority complexes are imposed upon certain sections
of society when their ways of thinking, culture and
modus operandi are repressed. He sees that the cumulative
effect of such repression cripples the minds of the
Repression directly affects the sub-conscious mind.
Gradually the psychic structure is severely damaged
and finally the mind is totally changed. The result
is that people are inflicted with a defeatist psychology
and an inferiority complex.(12)
In regards to women's position in society, he unequivocally
states that certain men consciously used psychological
abuse backed up by man-made social and religious codes
to relegate women to a status lower than chattel. Sarkar
supports the view that patriarchal society, to its own
detriment, has failed to give due value to women's qualities,
ideas and talents.
There is a greater degree of sentimentality in women.
Consequently, women can perform extraordinary feats
that men cannot. Had these potentialities been harnessed
for constructive activities, there would have been
many benefits for the world, but as this aspect of
women's psychology is not known, society could not
utilize their potential fully.(13)
On this point Sarkar shares the views of feminist
historians and writers that in a patriarchal society
only male social paradigms are recognized as the dominant
value system, and that the values associated with the
female paradigm are, at the most, subordinate or ancillary
values. Dale Spender in her monumental work, Women
of Ideas And What Men Have Done To Them, gives a
succinct description of this exploitative dynamic.
Patriarchal society depends . . . on the experience
and values of males being perceived as the only valid
frame of reference for society, and that it is therefore
in patriarchal interest to prevent women from sharing,
establishing and asserting their equally real, valid
and different frame of reference, which is the outcome
of different experience.(14)
Sarkar states that without a harmonious balance between
the male worldview and female worldview, "society
will become crippled, and its all-round well-being cannot
Male social roles are also the result of biological
make-up and social conditioning. Both females and males
need to be liberated from the limiting gender conditioning
in order for there to be true equality between the sexes
in society in terms of mutual respect of gender differences,
and egalitarian outlook in terms of social roles. This
process of liberation, according to Sarkar, is firstly
a process of the internal individual psyche, which in
turn will have its effect on the collective psyche.
History is the expression of collective human psychology.
Men today are beginning to realize that women can
no longer be treated as commodities. Those days are
gone. Women, too, are thinking, 'We will no longer
remain weak, feeble or inactive. We will no longer
passively tolerate injustice, torture, exploitation,
insults and hatred at the hands of male exploiters.'
The women's liberation movements in the East and West
have originated out of this changed collective psychology.(16)
For Sarkar, human beings are subtle entities, capable
of subtle expressions on the spiritual and psycho-spiritual
or intuitional planes, for which the physical body and
the physically-oriented psychic body with their attendant
glandular and nervous systems, are the base. It is the
subtler levels of human mind, goaded by spiritual and
universalistic ideals, which should ideally guide the
lower, more physically oriented levels. It is only in
the physical and lower psychic levels that there is
a difference between males and females. In the subtler,
and ultimately more powerful and altruistic levels,
there is no difference. Therefore, while the differences
between males and females on the physical and on certain
psychic levels need to be recognized and appreciated,
these same differences should not be used as a grounds
for the exploitation of one sex over the other.
COLLECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND THE GENDER DIALECTIC
One of the main questions in the feminist debate is
how and why did women come to be subordinated. The socialist
feminists' analysis of women's exploitation falls into
the materialist dialectic. They consider that women's
inferior status is due to the institution of private
property and class-divided society and to their corollary,
the patriarchal family. Sarkar introduces a dialectic
that is based on psychology. The dominance of human
psyche is actually the exploiting factor and not the
economic dynamic of society. Radical feminists also
analyse the psychological factor. They say that women
are categorized as an inferior class based upon their
sex, and that the purpose of male chauvinism is primarily
to obtain psychological ego satisfaction. In this regard,
radical feminists and Sarkar share a similar platform,
but this is short lived as the radicals' social solution
of 'separateness' is shown to be a temporary reaction
to abuse and exploitation. Sarkar's dialectic traces
the phases of exploitation and suppression and takes
society onto the next step of evolutionary development.
HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF EXPLOITATION
The most important innovation that Sarkar has given
to the understanding of social dynamics is his concept
of a collective psychology of society. His analysis
of history is not based on economic factors, but on
psychological ones. He traces main trends of social
evolution as a cyclical rotation of thesis, antithesis
and synthesis of psychological classes.
Social dynamism is commonly explained by Sarkar as
the result of a dialectical interaction between four
psychological classes: the working class, the martial
class, the intellectual class and the business or trading
class. Sarkar defines the working class as that collection
of people whose psychology is dominated by the material
world and who demonstrate no attempt to transcend it.
The class psychologies interact in such a way as to
produce a cyclical succession of class dominance - the
working class, followed by the martial class, followed
by the intellectual class, followed by the business
class - with the sequence repeating itself indefinitely.
Just as there has been an alternation of class dominance
due to the class dialectic, so too there has been an
alternation of gender dominance due to the gender dialectic.
In his essay, "Human History and Collective Psychology,"(17)
Sarkar argues that so far in human history there have
been three eras in the gender dialectic. In primitive,
that is, earliest human tribes, males and females had
equal importance in tribal structure; then followed
a period of matriarchy; and, subsequently, a period
of patriarchy, which still persists today.
During the shift from the first age of subsistence-oriented
societies, to the second age of tribal and feudal settlements,
society moved from a predominantly matriarchal make-up
to a patriarchal one. This occurred due to the increasing
predominance of the martial psychology which lead to
physical prowess, as opposed to a respect and awe of
women's reproductive and nurturing capacity, being recognized
as the criteria for social leadership. In the initial
stages of societies dominated by martial psychologies,
the status of motherhood and womanhood continued to
be respected and women were not exploited. But as the
natural vitality of this social thesis waned, and the
exploitative tendencies of the martial leaders began
to lead to social decadence, women were increasingly
viewed as spoils of war and the property of conquerors.
During the martial era, women's biological function
as child-bearers and carers, served to her disadvantage
for, due to her good faith in the benevolent martial
qualities of the men in society, she surrendered her
independence to become a home-maker and background supporter.
This eventually put her in a position of material and
psychological dependence. This psychology of dependence
was further exploited in the succeeding eras of the
predominance of the intellectual class and the business-oriented
In his writing, Sarkar has traced in vivid language
the details of women's oppression in the later phases
of this patriarchal period. He states that when the
martial psychology dominated society, women enjoyed
a relatively privileged position in society.(18) During
the era dominated by a decadent intellectual psychology,
however, women's position was relegated to that of slaves
and objects of enjoyment.(19) It was the exploitative
tendencies in the intellectual psychology which concocted
religious and, later on, scientific dogmas which instilled
in women a collective inferiority complex - that they
were spiritually inferior, the embodiment of evil; that
they were intellectually inferior, incapable of governing
their own property or lives, and incapable of serious
learning; that therefore they should use their cursed
female body and feeble womanly qualities to serve men
and bear his children, be dependent on his grace, or
submit to his rage, for all else through the inviolable
institution of marriage.
The vipra(20) intellect reduced them to the
position of wageless slaves. Conspiring to cripple
women in every way the vipras fabricated "divine"
commandments together with numerous kinds of scriptural
injunctions, paralogical tenets and imaginary yarns
of sin and virtue. Listening to these it would seem
that man alone, particularly the vipra man alone,
was the chosen person of God for whom the rest of
humanity had taken birth only to provide enjoyment.(21)
This exploitation was, and is, being further exacerbated
during this age of a predominant capitalist psychology,
where women are seen and used as consumers, producers
and objects of commerce. Despite advances in parts of
the world by women in certain areas, women's sexuality,
her physical and psychological vulnerability, are still
being grossly exploited by male narrow-mindedness, by
capitalist leeches, religious opportunists and military
In Sarkar's analysis, it is in times of extreme degeneration
of society and extreme exploitation by a decadent class,
that the natural reaction of the exploited masses is
to create a popular movement of anti-thesis. The present
women's movement is such a movement against the exploitative
institution of patriarchy as perpetrated by a globally
dominant business (capitalist) class. Sarkar argues
that historically women regained certain social rights
due to their persistent struggle against exploitative
patriarchal forces and social institutions.
One or two women who appeared to have been given
these spiritual rights had actually usurped them virtually
by force on the strength of their personalities. The
society of the pundits at that time did not oppose
this attempt to establish such rights in black and
white, but all the same it certainly did not view
it favourably or patronizingly. However, those women
subsequently commanded great respect and still do
today. Of course it has always been a fact that nobody
gives anybody rights on a platter. One has to establish
one's rights by dint of one's own force and power.(22)
Sarkar sees that greater recognition of women's rights
and potentialities is inevitable as society depends
more and more on intellectual prowess and less on human
physical strength. In the intellectual sphere, women
have as much capacity as men for excellence and initiative.
The main drawbacks to women taking their due place in
today's society are lack of education and lack of economic
self-sufficiency. Therefore Sarkar specifies free and
equal educational opportunities, provision of economic
and social security, and no discrimination in the social,
educational and religious realms as the main factors
which will empower women. He also describes how changes
in reproductive technology will bring about inevitable
changes in social structure, family structure and the
expression of an individual's creative potential. In
all these respects, he incorporates many of the views
of major womanist and feminist groups regarding greater
self-determination in reproductive rights, more collective
responsibility of child-rearing, equality in educational
and vocational opportunities, and economic self-sufficiency.
Sarkar does not believe, however, that a real paradigm
shift in social consciousness can occur only through
the anti-thesis of the women's movement and social equality
for women. Not only will both men and women have to
acknowledge the limitations of their past conditioning
but, in order that society might free itself from all
kinds of exploitative tendencies, they will also have
to transcend their individual physical and psychic limitations
and nurture the spiritual. Here again Sarkar elevates
the discussion of social transformation to embrace the
spiritual aspect of human life.
In an essay entitled, "The Neo-Ethics of Multilateral
Salvation,"(23) Sarkar gives two points which he
considers essential for a progressive and universalistic
transformation of the collective psychology: firstly,
that the Supreme Entity be accepted as the goal of life,
and secondly, that there be a balance between material,
or carbonic, and spiritual, or non-carbonic, pabula
in individual and social life.(24)
IMPERIALISM AND MALE-CHAUVINISM
Sarkar sees the phenomena of war, imperialism and destructive
male chauvinism as part of an aberrant collective psyche.(25)
He sees that it is the psychological nature of those
who dominate others' psychic pabula not to be satisfied
with a little power. The mental need and greed for power
feeds itself and takes over the mental motivation of
those in dominant roles until the desire to consume
the pabula of others becomes pathologically obsessive.
Imperialism has its origin in the psychic and functions
in the psychic arena. . . Goaded by this psychic ailment
. . . a superpower forces its own selfish national interests
on other weaker states to establish its suzerainty politically,
militarily, etc. A powerful linguistic group suppresses
other minority linguistic groups; the so-called upper
castes subjugate the so-called lower castes in society
and suck their vital juice under so many pleas and disguises;
and opportunistic males curtail the rights of women
in various ways. In all cases, the same inherent psychological
malady of imperialism prevails.(26) In explaining this,
he adds weight to the historical analysis of the radical
feminists who say that the suppression of women over
the centuries has been an often violent and totally
irrational wielding of male power just for the sake
of power. "Man establishes his 'manhood' in direct
proportion to this ability to have his ego override
woman's, and derives his strength and self-esteem through
We see historical examples of this destructive pathological
misogyny in the witch hunts, which spanned several centuries
of European history, and in the Church's moral condemnation
of women as the 'carnal source of all evil'. Throughout
the world today, manifestations of this kind of collective
mental sickness continue to shock us - the indiscriminate
rape and abuse of women and children during war, the
insatiable appetite of men for violent pornographic
stimulation, and the escalation of sex-tourism and sexual
exploitation of children.
According to Sarkar, progressive changes in the society
and a sharp decrease in all forms of exploitation, will
come about through a change in the collective psychology.(28)
In the first phase, this change may manifest as the
anti-thesis to the present capitalist domination of
the global society and patriarchal exploitation. This
change is presently taking place.
In his book, The Eternal Dance of Macrocosm,
Michael Towsey identifies several factors which indicate
the decline of the patriarchal society.(29) Firstly,
the expansionist drive of patriarchy, which has taken
its toll on the finite resources of planet earth, is
being challenged by the emergence of ecology and other
caring philosophies. These are the expressions of a
new kind of social psychology in which the principle
of harmony, not expansion or gain, is all important.
This resonates more easily with female collective psychology.
Secondly, "due to the neglect of its internal harmony,
patriarchal society is beset by anti-social and destructive
forces."(30) Thirdly, "the exploitation of
women is becoming more blatant, as in the spread of
pornography. The inability or lack of desire on the
part of politicians, police and the media to take a
sympathetic and effective stand is obvious. These factors
heighten the determination of women to fight back. More
women are joining the burgeoning protest movements that
challenge the status quo. From these movements come
future leaders."(31) Fourthly, there is a revival
of women's culture, literature etc. Finally, "strength
differences no longer have the same social, political
and economic significance as they previously did. .
. . The future belongs to those with intellect rather
than physical strength, and intellect is not the preserve
of one sex or the other."(32)
Towsey also mentions another factor which will bring
about changes in the collective psychology and affect
the gender dialectic.
The gender dialectic has an internal tendency to
arrive at an equilibrium . . . the polarization of
the dialectic will gradually become less and the male
and female collective psychologies will gradually
converge. This in turn implies that the differences
between individual male and female psychologies will
diminish. There is some hint of this in [one of Sarkar's
essays(33) ] where Sarkar implies that advances in
reproductive technology will make sexual reproduction
obsolete, and the reproductive capacity of the human
body will become extinct. Such changes in physical
structure would certainly have their psychological
parallel. In this situation both social consciousness
and social structures (family, education, welfare
structures) will be quite different from anything
we understand today.(34)
For Sarkar, this social transformation must take place
through the development of 'coordinated cooperation'
between men and women.
Women must not be suppressed, and there should not
be domination of males in the society. Society should
have a cooperative leadership, not a subordinated
leadership; there should be a coordinated, cooperative
leadership, leadership between males and females.(35)
Towsey sees that coordinated cooperation comes about
through the development of three kinds of 'spaces' in
In terms of social structures and institutions, coordinated
cooperation between the sexes means that there must
be three kinds of 'spaces' in society. For the proper
expression of both gender psychologies a future healthy
society will require both 'women only space' and 'men
only space'. These will be necessary so that both
poles of the dialectic can develop their respective
visions for society with clarity and self-confidence.
However, the highest flowering of human potential
will be achieved in the third 'space' where the female
and male visions meet. This third space is that of
coordinated cooperation. It is in this space that
the differences between the sexes acquire a meaning
and purpose beyond the merely biological. It is in
this space that all the human virtues clash and cohere
to produce a universal human society. It is in this
space that society advances with greatest speed towards
its ideal of social equality and collective welfare.(36)
In Sarkar's eyes, social transformation, however,
will not be complete without the universal spiritual
element being accepted by human beings as the basis
of all life.
Sarkar has defined the Sanskrit term for 'society',
samaj, as a group of people moving together towards
a progressive universal goal. The root of the word 'samaj'
is 'sam' which means 'together' or 'in unison'. He has
also stated that human beings on this planet have not
yet come together as a true samaj. That is the task
of human beings today.
To accomplish this task, a change will have to come
about in the collective psyche of human beings - a change
away from competitive, divisive, destructive paradigms
of human and global relationships towards a co-operative,
synthetic and compassionate paradigm.
Human beings are struggling to make this evolutionary
step of a change in the collective psyche. This change
will not be merely on the theoretical level, but will
be an actual transformation of human glandular, hormonal
and nervous systems to enable us to understand and express
subtle universalistic sentiments in our individual and
collective psyche. This change will come about through
struggle with the status quo of out-moded and limiting
sentiments and social mores. The present struggle for
greater recognition of women's qualities and dignity
is a part of this total struggle against all narrow
and divisive sentiments of human mind.
Sarkar has suggested 'coordinated cooperation' as the
mutually respectful and constructive form of social
relationships befitting a samaj, a true human society.
Such a stance honours the diversity of different human
beings and other animate and inanimate parts of our
society. In such a society, the different genders will
be able to contribute in their own distinct and equally
beneficial way towards the collective good of society.
Sarkar says that when an operation is done with collective
effort, then it is called cooperation.(37)
In every field of collective life there should be
cooperation amongst the members of society. Where
this cooperation is between free human beings, each
with equal rights and mutual respect for each other,
and each working for the welfare of the other, it
is called `coordinated cooperation' . . . in (existing
social) systems social relationships are mainly based
on subordinated cooperation, resulting in the degeneration
of society's moral fabric . . . This lack of proper
equilibrium and equipoise in social life is causing
the whole structure of society to crumble down.(38)
Our planet is degenerating due to a lack of proper
understanding amongst human beings. Sarkar, as a Tantric
master and visionary and also as a social philosopher,
has offered deep insights into the psychological reasons
for, and the negative results of, divisive and destructive
social malaises such as discrimination of one sex against
another. He places the onus on us, men and women of
today, to learn from our collective mistakes, and make
individual and collective efforts to throw off the out-moded
dogmas of the past, and based on a rational and intuitional
understanding of the interrelatedness of all the diverse
aspects of the universe, to learn how to think and live
in a cooperative way.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Equal Rights for
Men and Women", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The
Awakening of Women. Calcutta, Ananda Marga Publications,
- Margaret Andersen, Thinking About Women: Sociological
and Feminist Perspectives. New York, Macmillan,
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Equality in the Psycho-Spiritual
Sphere", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening
of Women, 237.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Samskara and Gender
Differences", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The
Awakening of Women, 207.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Sentimentality: A
Special Quality in Women", in Prabhat Rainjan
Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 228.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Sentimentality and
the Psycho-Spiritual Realm", in Prabhat Rainjan
Sarkar, The Awakening of Women, 242-243.
- Riane Eisler, Sacred Pleasure. San Francisco,
Harper Collins, 1996.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Aspects of Bio-Psychology",
in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women,
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Equal Rights for Men
and Women", 119-120.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Two Wings", in
Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening of Women,
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Sentimentality: A
Special Quality in Women", 228.
- Dale Spender, Women Of Ideas And What Men Have
Done To Them. London, Pandora Press, 1982, 5.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Sentimentality and
the Psycho-Spiritual Realm", 243.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Equal Rights for Men
and Women", 120.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Human History and
Collective Psychology", in The Awakening of
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Matriarchy in the
Ksattriya Age", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar,
The Awakening of Women, 3-6.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Women: The Wageless
Slaves of the Vipras", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar,
The Awakening of Women, 7-12.
- In analyzing society on the basis of class, Sarkar
defined class in terms of psycho-social characteristic.
The Vipran class was the class of intellectuals.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Women: The Wageless
Slaves of the Vipras", 8.
- Ibid, 9.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Neo-Ethics of Multi-Lateral
Salvation", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, Prout
in a Nutshell: Part 9. Calcutta, Ananda Marga
Publications, 1987, 67-68.
- Anne Koedt, Ellen Levine and Anita Rapone, eds.,
Radical Feminism. New York, Quadrangle, 1973, 379-80.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Human History and
Collective Psychology", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar,
The Awakening of Women, 123.
- Michael Towsey, The Eternal Dance of Macrocosm.
Copenhagen, Proutist Publications, 1986, 171-172.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Science and Population
Control", in Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, The Awakening
of Women, 267.
- Michael Towsey, 173.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, "Two Wings", 139.
- Michael Towsey, 175-176.
- Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar, Proutist Economics: Discourses
on Economic Liberation. Calcutta, Ananda Marga
Publications, 1992, 128-129.